On the Water – Ocean Crossings, 1870-1969: Comfort, Courtesy, Safety, Speed
Beginning in the 1920s, shipowners attempted to sell all passengers on the pleasures of the journey. For wealthy Americans, travel to Europe was a mark of status, and passenger ships catered to these customers by providing lavish spaces at sea. Britain, Germany, and France competed to create showpiece “ships of state” in the early 1900s.
Luncheon menu from the Lusitania, the Mauretania’s sister ship, 1908
The “black gang,” which included trimmers who shifted coal inside the bunkers, coal-passers who brought it by the barrowful to each boiler, and firemen who worked the fires, describes the backbreaking labor of steam-powered ships’ boilers.
The stokehold of a steamship
Between 1923 and 1934, the Mauretania cruised 54 times, and steamship companies converted steerage into low-cost cabins to cater to middle-class tourists and business travelers. In the 1920s, new immigration laws reduced the flow of immigrants to the United States.
The Mauretania’s first-class lounge
Plaster panels beneath skylights depicted early vessels and naval battles. Liners were works of art for ship designers and sources of national pride. The White Star Line dubbed their flagship Titanic “practically unsinkable.”
The Wreck of the Titanic
The Titanic hit an iceberg on April 14, 1912, and sank in less than three hours, killing about 1,500 of the ship’s 2,200 passengers and crew. Only 150 bodies were recovered from the North Atlantic, and about half were never identified. Bernice Palmer Ellis was on board the Carpathia when it came to the Titanic’s rescue.
The Titanic was more than a ship and a tragedy; it became a moral lesson and a cautionary tale over time, shattering people’s faith in technology and progress. Singers and songwriters found different meanings in the Titanic’s loss.
A Family Cruise
Joan Browning traveled to and from Europe as a child aboard the SS United States, which she later described as “the best America had to offer,” with top-of-the-line food and service for an eight-year-old girl.
Dinner menu from April 18, 1955
The United States’ crew was mostly made up of Americans, and the ship’s schedule allowed them to take a day off in London or Paris. Waiters and stewards frequently encountered celebrities on board. Joe Rota, on the left, joined the ship as a bellboy in 1956.
How long did it take to cross the Atlantic in 1912?
While sailing ships took one to two months to cross the Atlantic, the first steamships took only 15 days.
How long did it take to sail from England to France in the 1500s?
Franklin discovered early on that he didn’t get seasick, which was fortunate because the perilous transatlantic crossing took at least six weeks and could take up to two or three months.
How fast were 18th century ships?
With a range of about 100 to 140 miles per day and a ground speed of about 4 to 6 knots, this equates to a range of about 100 to 140 miles per day.
How big were ships in the 1600s?
Carracks for exploration ships, such as the Santa Maria or Vasco da Gama’s San Gabriel, were small, weighing around 90 tons; however, merchant ships weighed between 250 and 500 tons, with crews ranging from 40 to 80, and some warships weighed up to 1000 tons.
Do passenger ships still cross the Atlantic?
A transatlantic voyage on a passenger ship was the only way to cross the Atlantic for more than 200 years, and while it is not as quick as flying, it is still possible to sail both ways and see some of Europe in a reasonable amount of time.
How much does it cost to cross the Atlantic by ship?
Freighter Cruises Getting on board a freighter ship, whose primary purpose is to transport cargo, is the simplest and cheapest way to cross the Atlantic by ship. Freighters usually carry up to a dozen passengers and cost around $100 per day (including meals) for each person.
Has anyone died swimming the English Channel?
The exact number of people who have died attempting the swim is unknown, but the Channel Swimming and Piloting Federation lists eight deaths between 1926 and 2013. Last July, a 34-year-old Englishwoman died a mile from the same shore.
Can you see France from Dover?
On a clear, sunny day, you can see France from Dover, which has a nice pebble beach and cliffs that contribute to a great view. Dover Castle is also not far away and can be seen.
Can you sail to America from UK?
You can take a ship from the UK to cross the Atlantic; I’m an American living in England who has been flying to North Carolina for 30 years.
What is the fastest ship in the world?
The Francisco, built by the Incat shipyard in Australia, is the world’s fastest ship, reaching 58.1 knots and carrying up to 1,000 passengers between Buenos Aires and Montevideo, Uruguay.
What was the fastest pirate ship?
The Black Pearl is the fastest ship in the Pirates of the Caribbean films, thanks to a deal made by Jack Sparrow and Davy Jones.
What is the biggest ship in Sea of thieves?
The Galleon is the largest ship type in Sea of Thieves, allowing you and three other players to join the crew at the start of the game. Galleons are the most difficult to sink until the water reaches the second deck, where it fills up quickly.
What kind of ship is the Black Pearl?
The Lady Washington, a historical replica tall ship that was launched in Aberdeen, Washington in 1989, is the ship that portrayed the HMS Interceptor, aboard which Sparrow chased his purloined ship, the Black Pearl, in the first “Pirates” film.