When the nerve impulse reaches the dendrites at the end of the axon, chemical messengers called neurotransmitters are released.
These chemicals diffuse across the synapse (the gap between the two neurons).
The chemicals bind with receptor molecules on the membrane of the second neuron.
How are neurotransmitters transmitted?
At chemical synapses, impulses are transmitted by the release of neurotransmitters from the axon terminal of the presynaptic cell into the synaptic cleft. Classic low-molecular-weight neurotransmitters are imported from the cytosol into synaptic vesicles by a proton-coupled antiporter.
Where are neurotransmitters stored in the cell?
Neurotransmitters are made in the cell body of the neuron and then transported down the axon to the axon terminal. Molecules of neurotransmitters are stored in small “packages” called vesicles (see the picture on the right).
What are the 7 major neurotransmitters?
Fortunately, the seven “small molecule” neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, histamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin) do the majority of the work.
Why are neurotransmitters referred to as chemical messengers?
Neurotransmitters are often referred to as the body’s chemical messengers. They are the molecules used by the nervous system to transmit messages between neurons, or from neurons to muscles. Communication between two neurons happens in the synaptic cleft (the small gap between the synapses of neurons).