A Journey in Chains | African | Immigration and Relocation in U.S. History | Classroom Materials at the Library of Congress | Library of Congress
Slavers roamed the African countryside, preying on villagers who let their guard down. Slave ships were owned and operated by Europeans, but the work of kidnapping new victims was left to West Africans.
The Middle Passage
Slave decks were often only a few feet high, and African captives were shackled together lying down side by side. Deaths from suffocation, malnutrition, and disease were common on the slave deck. The shrieks of the women, and the groans of the dying, rendered the whole a scene of horror almost inconceivable.
How long did it take to ship slaves?
The journey from Angola to Brazil could take as little as 35 days, just over a month, but most British and French ships took two to three months. Ships carried anywhere from 250 to 600 slaves and were generally overcrowded.
What did the slaves eat on the ship?
Enslaved Africans were fed beans, corn, yams, rice, and palm oil at best; however, enslaved Africans were not always fed every day; if there was not enough food for both the sailors (human traffickers) and the slaves, the enslavers would eat first, and the enslaved would go hungry.
What was the middle passage answer?
Millions of enslaved Africans were forcibly transported to the Americas as part of the Atlantic slave trade’s triangular slave trade during the Middle Passage.
Where were slaves kept on a ship?
Slave Guardians were assigned to watch over and keep the other slaves in check, as they were naked and shackled together with various types of chains, stored on the floor beneath bunks with little to no room to move.
What caused the ZANJ rebellion?
When Ali heard that Basra’s factions were fighting again in 869, he returned to the area and “began to seek out black slaves working in the Basra marshes and to inquire into their working conditions and nutritional standards.” He launched a campaign to free and recruit Zanj and other slaves, promising them freedom.
What took place on the Zong?
The Zong massacre was a mass killing of more than 130 enslaved Africans by the crew of the British slave ship Zong on and in the days following November 29, 1781. The ship was owned and sailed in the Atlantic slave trade by the William Gregson slave-trading syndicate, based in Liverpool.